The Hopi and Their Jewelry

Hopi Silver Overlay Jewelry

The jewelry of the Hopi has a style distinct from that of the other Native Americans. The Hopi are known for the use of silver overlay, which utilizes a technique of fusing two layers of silver. The eye-catching and often elaborate design is on the top layer, while the bottom layers serves as a base.

It was not so long ago that the Hopi developed this technique. In fact the Hopi were not much into the making of silver. In their relative isolation on the northeastern Arizona high plains, or mesas, they were somewhat firewalled (so to speak) against external influences. Even their interaction with other Native Americans was limited.

Silversmithing of Native Americans

So while the Navajo learned and developed their silversmithing skills, a technique brought to the south-west of the American continent by the Spaniards, and which was then taken up by the Zuni, the Hopi were still practicing their own artistic heritage based on weaving and pottery. They were also adept at the making of kachina dolls, for which they deservedly remain renowned.

Time, of course, would not stand still, and even reliably isolated communities began to open up. Trading and commerce grew and the Hopi through their interaction with the Zuni exposed them to the craft of silver jewelry, at which the Zuni were now skilled. Lanyade, a Zuni, learned his silversmithing from the Navajo, and began to sell his silver jewelry. He travelled among the Hopi and Sikyatala became his student in 1898.

Sikyatala

Sikyatala is credited to be the first Hopi silversmith. It is reported that while Lanyade was at the Hopi reservation for four months, making and selling his silver jewelry pieces, Sikyatala was studiously observing and learning from the master at close range.

Sikyatala then began to use the technique of making silver jewelry. Other Hopi also began to follow and emulate the work of Sikyatala. In time the Hopi developed their own style, that of using overlay silver.

Hopi Silversmiths Paul Saufie and Fred Kabote

This technique did not so much evolve as was created by the Hopi silversmiths Paul Saufkie and Fred Kabote who were involved in a program at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1938. After World War II the Hopi Guild was formed to encourage a program of silversmith training .

The designs of the silver overlay jewelry of the Hopi were also unique in that they adapted designs from the old broken pottery pieces of the 15th and 16th centuries. New motifs were also incorporated by the Hopi Guild, including kachina symbols.

The cross-currents in Native American jewelry nowdays mean that there are cross-influences as well. And different styles from the different currents may well find themselves evident in any piece of modern American Native jewelry.

But the fascinating development of Native American silversmiths and their crafts, in their different streams of artistic design, does not entirely obscure the original creativity. The silver overlay technique was the creation of the Hopi, even if it may now be employed by others.

Michael Kabotie

In ending, it may be noted that the work of Fred Kabote was continued by his son Michael Kabote (also spelled 'Kabotie'). Michael Kabotie recently passed away at the age of 67. He was a trail-blazer in the Native American fine arts movement, both as a Hopi artist and jeweler. His paintings were well-received, depicting traditional Hopi life. For a number of years, he also tapped the Hopi overlay technique at the Idyllwild Arts program in Southern California.

SEO Consulting For Big Brand Companies – 16 Guidelines For SEO Consultants to Beat the Competition

While the basic principles of SEO strategies are the same for most websites, there are certain techniques and strategies on which SEO consultants need to emphasize more when optimizing big brand web sites. An SEO consultant when selecting between different SEO services for big brand websites should apply strict planning and proven strategies that must be tailored to the specific needs of every web site.

1 – Establish your Authority:

Big brand web sites must establish their expertise in the field they are serving. Authority is recognized by both human visitors and search engine spiders by proving that their websites are the source of valuable information in their fields. Big brand websites must contain many pages dedicated primarily to providing useful knowledge to their clients. It can be in the form of a glossary of terms, frequently asked questions or tips and advices to their customers. The content of these pages must be of high quality and perfectly optimized for different keywords.

2 – Create semantic theming and siloing:

It is vital to create semantic branding for big brand websites by rearranging their pages and their internal link structure to represent clear categories that can be easily recognizable by both human visitors and search engine spiders.

An SEO consultant should divide the pages of the website into categories or groups. Each category must contain pages with closely related subjects and keywords. For each category there should be an index page where all the other pages of the same category will link to and the category index page will link back to them. Each category index page must have at least 5 – 10 pages from the same category pointing links to it with different relevant keywords as anchor text for these links.

Each category index page will link to the home page and the home page will link back to this category index page. You can create cross links between pages of the same category, but not between pages of different categories.

This type of internal link arrangement will increase the topical relevancy of every page and improve its search engine rankings.

3 – Review and clean out pages that are off topic:

After establishing the theming structure of the website, review every page and rewrite it removing all information that is not related to the specific topic or category where this page belongs to.

4 – Number of indexed pages and content:

SEO Consultants should match the amount of indexed pages and their content in big brand web sites to the amount of indexed pages and their content in the competitor's websites. If the pages of the competitor's websites have 500 words each, you should not have only 100 words in each of your pages. Your competitor's websites will look more authoritative.

5 – On-page optimization:

Proper on-page optimization will put the most relevant keywords where the search engine spiders go looking. Use long-tailed keywords as frequently as possible in the different pages according to the semantic theming of the website.

6 – Rewrite title tags and description metatags:

Big brand websites with thousands of pages typically have many duplicate title tags and description metatags. Rewrite unique title tag and description metatags for every page using keywords relevant to every page to enforce the new theming design of the whole website.

7 – Improve HTML Code:

Over years and with many configurations and additions, the big brand websites typically accumulate a lot of bad HTML coding. Clean up the code and make all links absolute as this gives the pages more relevancies when visited by search engine spiders.

8. Add footer links:

Using links in the footer of the pages is an effective method to strengthen the anchor text for the main pages and enhance the themic structure of the whole website.

9. Finish on-page optimization before starting off-page optimization:

Do not attempt to do any off page search engine optimization before you finish on-page optimization to a reasonable level. First fix the content and internal linking structure as much as you can. It does not make any sense to get more potential customers or search engine spiders visiting a big website which is completely messed up.

10 – Build high quality back links:

One of the biggest challenges to any SEO consultant is to acquire high quality back links from respectable sites. SEO consultants must avoid buying links that will lose its value over time. They should concentrate most of their energy on getting such links from relevant websites and ask for anchor text relevant to their subjects.

11 – Combine organic SEO campaign with PPC:

Combine organic SEO campaign with different forms of paid advertising like paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion in different search engines.

12 – Implement a fully optimized blog on the web sites:

Big brand websites need at least one blog to engage its customers more in their news and events and to drive more relevant links to the pages of the main website. Many big brand companies have more than 5 well maintained blogs.

Continuously add new content to the blog to increase spider activity which will spread to the whole site. It will also attract a steady stream of readers and potential customers.

13 – Social media marketing (SMM):

An SEO consultant providing SEO services to a big brand company must establish a strong presence of this brand name in different social media sites like Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. He should also encourage sales and marketing personnel to get involved in the discussions around their brand, products and services.

14 – Reputation management:

SEO Consultants should consistently monitor the brand reputation on the internet to take quick actions so that they can resolve any problems stated by customers in any website. There are different software programs available to enable companies to monitor and track any indication of their brand on the internet.

15. Publish highly optimized press releases:

Big brand companies should regularly publish highly optimized press releases about different activities, events, new products or services. This will emphasize their authority and enhance visibility.

16 – Monitor and track your progress:

SEO consultants must have a set of tools to allow them to monitor and track their progress in the different aspects of their SEO campaign and to detect every possible change in the progress of their search engine optimization planes. Start by establishing a base line to know where you are concerned ranking, link popularity, convergence rates and other metrics.

Creating an aggressive search engine marketing (SEM) campaign for a big brand website with tens of thousands of pages typically needs a meticulous SEO plan that takes all search engine optimization problems into consideration. An SEO consultant should continually interpret and evaluate the results to adjust his strategies accordingly.

Antique Furniture: The Timeless Classic

When you do a search online for Antique Furniture, one of the first listings that pop up is a Wikipedia article stating just the general basics of how antique furniture is valued. These criteria include how the monetary value of a piece of antique furniture correlates to its age, rarity, and condition.

What exactly does this mean for a consumer looking to add antique decor to a house? The factors vary. While they are highly collectible, acquiring Antique Furniture began as a means to express one's status, and to this day is still an effective means to do so. Antique Furniture captures the essence of the height of style and luxury from the era the furniture originates. Purchasing a table from Leighton Hall for example, captures the grandeur of the old English estate, and can create a similar feeling of ageless rustic royalty in the room. Alternately, a purchase of antique EJ Victor furniture may create the appearance eighth century high class with its hand made craftsmanship.

These days, most furniture stores will offer to sell antiques right along their brand new factory-direct couches, tables, chairs and cabinets. In these situations, caveat emptor is the rule. Without you already happen to be a connoisseur of all things antique, or can bring one with you, it is recommended that you keep your eye open for a couple of things. If you want a real antique, see if you can find some sort of maker's mark. Once locating this, take note of a manufacture date. Take this information to a knowledgeable source to see if they have any more information for you concerning the piece of furniture you have your eye on. Something you can do on your own is to look for imperfections in the restoration of the article you are thinking about purchasing. Uneven finishes, mottle veneer, and other indicators that it was a rushed job are all signs that you should either move on, or expect to spend some extra money fixing it up.

Those looking specifically for Antique Furniture will have much better luck going to an actual antiques furniture store. Many of them have a passion for the business, and these individuals are knowledgeable about their work. Instead of going off site for information about an item of furniture you have in mind, sales staff often times have great insight into the items they sell. You also will be hard pressed to find a better selection of antique furniture than at a store that actually specializes in what you're looking for. At a good antique store you'll be able to find a wide assortment of price, style, and rarity while being met with excellent condition across the board.

Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .